All posts by Jeremy Gay

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Jeremy Gay is an author, lifelong fishkeeper, and aquatic specialist. He's a former editor of Practical Fishkeeping Magazine, UK editor at Reefbuilders, a former aquatic store manager, and has collected fish in Sri Lanka and the Amazon. He's been on tv and radio, contributed to Koi Carp and Gardeners World magazines, been a product tester, a judge, and a product developer. Jeremy is here to guide and advise you on all things tropical, pond and marine, from set-up to stocking, health, feeding to breeding, as well as solving many common fishkeeping problems along the way.
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How to clean a pond pump

Pond pumps need regular cleaning and maintenance because of the dirty job they have to do. Even new pumps can clog up and stop and working if they suck in too much algae and debris. If your pump stops working the first thing to do is access, check and clean the impeller. Here's how:1. Switch off the pumpSwitch off the pump at the mains and to be extra safe and sure, unplug it. If the pum...

How many marine fish in a 60-litre tank?

An aquarium set makes a great Christmas present

Due to advances in the marine hobby, it is now possible to keep fish and even corals in small tanks like the Fluval Sea Evo and other tanks of similar volume. The factors that affect how many you add include the age of the tank, maturity of the filter, the type and size of the filter, if it has a protein skimmer running and of course the eventual size of the fish themselves. Let’s start with th...

How to raise pH in an African cichlid tank

Cichlids from East Africa’s Great Rift Valley are adapted to hard, alkaline water with a high pH in the wild, and should be given similar water conditions in the aquarium if they are to thrive. Tap water in the UK ranges from about pH 6-8.5 and depends on where you live, and where your local water authority sources its water from. A pH of 6 is lovely for most South American and West Af...

What test kits do I need for a reef tank?

One of the best investments you’ll ever make in fishkeeping is in test kits. Water can look crystal clear yet still be deadly to fish and with reef tanks you have the complicated lives of corals and invertebrates and their needs to think about too. Run a reef tank without testing and you’re running one blind. Nutrients will build up and elements will degrade, resulting in seawater that isn’...

What is the best light for aquarium plants?

Aquarium plants need lighting with the right spectrum if they are to be healthy and grow properly. This may be slightly different to the stock lights supplied in your aquarium package so many planted tank owners and aquascapers swap their lights out for those with dedicated plant spectrums.The colour of light is measured in something called Kelvin, and most plant lights have a Kelvin rating ...

How to make a pond

Spring is coming, the sun is out and its time to start thinking about those big garden projects again. If you haven’t already got one, a pond should be one of those projects as it transforms a garden, bringing life and movement, encouraging wildlife and bringing us closer to nature. They don’t have to be big or expensive either, and a small pond can be dug, lined and filled within a day. ...

How to lower ammonia levels naturally

Ammonia is really dangerous to fish, even when as low as one part per million, and it's an invisible aquarium fish killer. Fish produce ammonia via their gills as they breathe but they aren’t adapted to be able to deal with it as in nature it's simply diluted by the vastness of the body of water they live in. In aquaria we use filters, or more specifically the live, beneficial bacteria...

Why is my fish tank green?

Fish tanks turn green with algae, which needs light, water and nutrients to grow. Algae spores are airborne, so even if you start off with brand new everything, coldwater, tropical or marine, your tank will go green.Algae are tiny plant-like dots that can stick to surfaces like the tank glass or even be free-floating in the water. A little algae is natural in any tank - some fish, snails and ...

How to do a water change without killing fish

Water changes are really important for fish tanks. They lower pollutant levels and can add buffers, freshening up the tank and aiding fish growth. They can also be used to remove debris from the tank, like algae and fish poop, so are a key part of a regular maintenance regime. We have freshwater in abundance in our homes - tap water - but there are a few key things you need to do to it f...

What is the best food for marine fish?

Marine fish have evolved to take advantage of all the different types of food that are available in the ocean. Foods vary from phytoplankton to zooplankton, macroalgae to mobile invertebrates, coral polyps and even other fish. Some fish are omnivores and are easy to feed in our aquariums, while others are specialists which struggle to feed on items that are different to what they would find in th...

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